Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome
One of the Zofran heart defects that refers to the underdevelopment of the structures on the right side of the heart.
Problems present will include:
- Pulmonary valve atresia – (absence)
- Very small (or hypoplastic) right ventricle
- A small tricuspid valve
- A small (hypoplastic) pulmonary artery
Several Zofran heart defects that all involve underdevelopment of the left side of the heart. The structures typically effected are the left ventricle and the aorta. The left-sided valves (aortic and mitral) may be completely closed, meaning all of the blood must be pumped by the right ventricle alone.
Narrowing of the mitral valve. If the narrowing is significant it can cause heart failure. If it is completely closed it is HLHS.
A condition caused by the failure of the ductus arteriosus to close. The ductus arteriosis normally is a temporary blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta that closes shortly after birth.
Patent Foramen Ovale
A defect in the atrial septum. It is an incomplete closure of the wall that results in the creation of a flap or a valve-like opening in the atrial septal wall. When a person with this defect creates pressure in their chest (sneezing, coughing,) the flap can open and cause oxygenated blood to mix with unoxygenated blood.
Narrowing of the pulmonary valve. If the valve is completely closed the condition is called valve atresia.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPV) or (TAPVR)
Rather than the blood supply returning from the lungs to the left atrium via the four distinct pulmonary veins as it should in a normal heart, the blood drains abnormally into the right atrium through a common pulmonary vein.
Very rare Zofran heart defects that involve an abnormal mitral heart valve, a supramitral ring (membrane that covers the mitral valve) a subaortic stenosis (narrowing below the aortic valve) and coarctation of the aorta
Zofran heart defects made up of four components:
- Narrowing of the pulmonary valve
- A large VSD
- A dilated aorta that is connected to both the right and the left ventricles
- Hypertrophy (thickening) of the right ventricle (This thickening results from the right ventricle having to work harder to pass blood across the narrowed pulmonary valve and into the lungs.
A reversal of the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which results in abnormal blood flow. In TGA rather than the blood flowing from the right side of the heart to the lungs to the left side of the heart throughout the body and back to the right side of the heart – the blood in a child with TGA flows from the right side of the heart to the body and back to the right side of the heart. Simultaneously, blood flows from the left side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart.
Zofran heart defects where the tricuspid valve, which is normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly during pregnancy. Basically, four problems are present:
- Improper development of the tricuspid valve prevents oxygen-poor (blue) blood from passing from the right atrium to the right ventricle and on to the lungs.
- The right ventricle is underdeveloped.
- VSD and ASD are present – allowing the blood to mix and be circulated
- PDA remains open allowing the blood to mix.
Narrowing of the tricuspid valve. If the tricuspid valve is very small, the right ventricle is likely to be very small, and there may be no pulmonary valve opening.
A hole or opening between the right and left ventricles.